“Black holes are everywhere” and “lowest-mass black holes are formed when very massive stars eject most of their material into space leaving a compact core that collapses into a black hole”, declares the Royal Astronomical Society press release 12/20 of 27th March.
Yet a ‘black hole’ singularity cannot form in finite time. So says Einsteinian physics and the original analysers of the collapsing star model (Oppenheimer & Snyder = OS).
At NAM2012, we presented a Poster* aimed at solving this paradox. We map the OS solution space (solving PDEs in co-moving coordinates for inward contracting particles in very high gravity) describing outer and inner regions of an ideal collapsing star of cold ‘dust’. Analytic continuation from the outer to inner regions shows collapse onto a shell rather than a central point, with large but finite density at finite times.
Not ‘black hole’ cores, but gravitationally collapsed shells could be the relics of massive stars after the supernova stage. But being only a few km in size, with propensity to suck in mass from the surrounding region, they lack the ‘black hole’ glamour sought by astronomers.
The shells are not black, as we find light does pass through, but with increasing delay as the shell compresses. The Hawking-Penrose ‘black hole’ singularity is based on a misreading of the OS map, we conclude, and OS were right to comment that a singularity could not form in finite time.
*Marshall & Wallis: GW1 poster 54 “Genuine field theory needed to support Gravitational Waves”